VDM+ Dataset | References

References for the VDM+ Dataset

This page provides guidance on how to cite the VDM+ Dataset, as well as references that users may find useful when citing the VDM+ Dataset in scholarly works. Because the VDM+ Dataset includes not only the intensity and structure parameters synthesized from the Vortex Data Messages, but also includes three distinct source datasets (the HURDAT2 dataset, the Extended Best Track Dataset, and the SHIPS Development Dataset), users are encouraged to cite the relevant articles/documentation for each of these source datasets that they use, as well as any relevant references for the VDM+ Dataset itself. In most cases, it should suffice to include a citation to one or two of the most relevant papers in the list for each dataset used.

How to cite the VDM+ Dataset

When data from the VDM+ Dataset are used in a scholarly article or presentation, we request that you provide a data citation to the VDM+ Dataset. The suggested format for a data citation is:

   Vigh, J. L., 2023. VDM+: The Enhanced Vortex Data Message Dataset (Version 2.0.0). Tropical Cyclone Data 
	     Project, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. 
	     [Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5065/D61Z42GH.] Accessed* dd mmm yyyy.

where * dd mmm yyyy is the date which you last accessed the dataset (e.g., 31 Jul 2023).

Relevant references for any use of the VDM+ Dataset

  • Vigh, J. L., 2010a: Formation of the hurricane eye. Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523, 538 pp. [Available in the official graduate school format (best for printing) or a single-spaced format with hyperlinks (best for viewing onscreen)].
  • Vigh, J. L., J. A. Knaff, and W. H. Schubert, 2012: A climatology of hurricane eye formation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 1405-1426, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00108.1.* (pdf file of article, supplement)
  • Vigh, J., 2015: VDM+: The Enhanced Vortex Message Dataset: Structure, Intensity, and Environmental Parameters from Atlantic Tropical Cyclones. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-517+STR, 72 pp, doi:10.5065/D6PR7T26. (pdf)

The 2012 paper and accompanying supplement serve as the primary scientific references for the VDM+ Dataset, so a user should cite this reference in most cases. Technical details about the data sources and the dataset structure are treated in the 2014 NCAR Technical Note, which should also be cited.

Relevant references for the Best Track Database

  • Jarvinen, B. R., C. J. Neumann, and M. A. S. Davis, 1984: A Tropical Cyclone Data Tape for the North Atlantic Basin, 1886-1983: Contents, Limitations, and Uses. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS/NHC 22, 21 pp. [Available from NOAA/NWS/NHC, Miami, FL 33165.]
  • McAdie, C. J., C. W. Landsea, C. J. Neumann, J. E. David, E. S. Blake, and G. R. Hammer, 2009: "Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic, 1851--2006 (6th Ed.). Historical Climatology Series 6-2, 238 pp. [Available from the National Climatic Data Center, 151 Patton Avenue, Room 120, Asheville, NC 28801-5001. Also available online at: http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/abouttrackbooks.shtml].
  • Landsea, C. W. and J. L. Franklin, 2013: Atlantic Hurricane Database Uncertainty and Presentation of a New Database Format. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 3576-3592, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00254.1.

Relevant references for the Extended Best Track Dataset

  • Demuth, J., M. DeMaria, and J.A. Knaff, 2006: Improvement of advanced microwave sounder unit tropical cyclone intensity and size estimation algorithms. J. Appl. Meteor., 45, 1573-1581.

Relevant references for the SHIPS Development Dataset

  • DeMaria, M., and J. Kaplan, 1994: A statistical hurricane intensity prediction scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic basin. Wea. Forecasting, 9, 209-220. (pdf)
  • Kaplan, J., and M. DeMaria, 1995: A simple empirical model for predicting the decay of tropical cyclone winds after landfall. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2499-2512. (pdf)
  • DeMaria, M., and J. Kaplan, 1999: An updated statistical hurricane intensity prediction scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic and eastern north Pacific basins. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 326-337. (pdf)
  • Kaplan, J., and M. DeMaria, 2001: On the decay of tropical cyclone winds after landfall in the New England area. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 280-286. (pdf)
  • Kaplan, J., and M. DeMaria, 2003: Large-scale characteristics of rapidly intensifying tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic basin, Wea. Forecasting, 18, 1093-1108. (pdf)
  • DeMaria, M., M. Mainelli, L.K. Shay, J.A. Knaff and J. Kaplan, 2005: Further Improvements in the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS). Wea. Forecasting, 20, 531-543. (pdf)
  • DeMaria, M., J. A. Knaff, and J. Kaplan, 2006: On the decay of tropical cyclone winds crossing narrow landmasses, J. Appl. Meteor., 45, 491-499. (pdf)
  • Jones, T. A., D. J. Cecil, and M. DeMaria, 2006: Passive Microwave-Enhanced Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme. Wea. and Forecasting, 21, 613-635. (pdf)
  • DeMaria, M., 2009: A simplified dynamical system for tropical cyclone intensity prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 68-82. (pdf)
  • DeMaria, M. 2010: Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change Predictability Estimates Using a Statistical-Dynamical Model, 29th AMS Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Tucson, AZ. (pdf)
  • Kaplan, J., M. DeMaria, and J.A. Knaff, 2010: A Revised Tropical Cyclone Rapid Intensification Index for the Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific Basins. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 220-221. (pdf)
  • Schumacher, A. S., M. DeMaria, and J. Knaff, 2013: Summary of the New Statistical-Dynamical Intensity Foreast Models for the Indian Ocean and Southern Hemisphere and Resulting Performance. (JTWC Project Final Report)


This page was last updated 31 July 2023 by Jonathan Vigh.